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NAPPF
METAR & TAF

LINK to METAR

LINK to TAF


Link to METAR TAF Abbreviations

METAR

Jim Sweeney, NAPPF President and USUA Board Member

METAR contains an hourly report of wind, visibility, runway visual range, present weather, sky condition, temperature, dew point, and altimeter setting collectively referred to as "the body of the report." Jim joins us to show us how to break the code of and get good weather information out of a METAR. In fact Jim has provided some examples to work on. Learn information that will help you transition to Sport Pilot. (5/11/03)



METAR

Aviation Routine Weather Reports

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA OVC010 18/16 A2992

To help remember the sequence, think of 3W's at the beginning -
Where, When, and Wind

KPIT
WHERE
KPIT is the ICAO station identifier.

KPIT 201955Z

WHEN
201955Z is the 20th day of the month.
20
1955Z at 1955Z time

Time Correction/Conversion
To get the local time of the METAR observation, use the following:
    EDT    Zulu - 4 hours = EDT            EST    Zulu - 5 hours = EDT
    CDT    Zulu - 5 hours = CDT           CST    Zulu - 6 hours = CST
    MDT    Zulu - 6 hours = MDT           MST    Zulu - 7 hours = MST
    PDT    Zulu - 7 hours = PDT            PST    Zulu - 8 hours = PST

KPIT 201955Z 22015G25KT

WIND
22015G25KT is reported as the 3 digit true direction to the nearest 10 degrees.
(Note: ATC towers, ATIS and airport advisory service report wind as magnetic.)
220
15G25KT next is the 2 or 3 digit speed.
22015
G25KT a "G" comes next if the wind is gusting.
22015G
25KT followed by the 2 or 3 digit maximum speed and units (KT).
00000KT for calm winds.

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM
VISIBILITY
3/4SM meaning 3/4 statue mile visibility. Miles and fractions are also reported
            (e.g.,
2 3/4SM for 2 and 3/4 statute miles visibility).


KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA
SIGNIFICANT PRESENT WEATHER
TSRA: Thunderstorm/Moderate Rain
           
Format is a two character descriptor (TS, SH, BL)
            sometimes followed by a two character weather phenomenon (BR, DZ, HZ, RA, SN, FG).
            Intensity or proximity of weather phenomenon:
             "-" Light, "+" Heavy, "no sign" Moderate,         "VC" In the vicinity

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA OVC010
CLOUDS
OVC010: Specifies cloud amount, height, and type.
            Overcast clouds are present at 1000 feet
Cloud height is reported in hundreds of feet.
The clouds are categorized based on eighths of the sky:
            SKC Sky Clear
            FEW >1/8 2/8
            SCT    3/8 4/8
            BKN    5/8 7/8
            OVC    8/8

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA OVC010 18/16
Temperature/Dew Point

18/16
: Temperature/Dew Point listed in degrees Celsius.
            When temperatures are below zero degrees Celsius, they are preceded by "M" for Minus    (e.g., 10/M06 for temperature 10 degrees C, dew point Minus 6 degrees C).

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA OVC010 18/16 A2992
Altimeter Setting

A2992
Altimeter Setting "A" indicates setting in inches of mercury for United States.
            Consists of 4 digits: inches and hundredths.

KPIT 201955Z  22015G25KT 3/4SM TSRA OVC010 18/16 A2992
RMK AO2
Remarks
RMK AO2
An ASOS/AWOS report can be identified by the term A01 or A02 in the remarks (RMK) section.
            AO1 Automated Observation without precipitation discriminator (rain/snow)
            AO2 Automated Observation with precipitation discriminator (rain/snow)

METAR for Dupage, IL 5/10/04

KDPA 101653Z 22013KT 10SM CLR 27/19 A2997 RMK AO2

KDPA 101753Z 21012KT 10SM TS SCT050 27/18 A2996 RMK AO2 LTG DSNT SW-N TSB14

KDPA 101830Z 29012G22KT 10SM -TSRA SCT055 SCT100 23/18 A2996 RMK AO2 WSHFT 1810 LTG DSNT NW-NE RAB23

KDPA 101853Z 28008KT 10SM VCTS CLR 24/19 A2995 RMK AO2 WSHFT 1810 LTG DSNT W-NE RAB23E40

KDPA 101900Z 29008KT 10SM CLR 26/19 A2995 RMK AO2 LTG DSNT N AND W TSE1854

KDPA 101933Z 31010KT 10SM TS FEW060 SCT090 24/19 A2994 RMK AO2 LTG DSNT W AND NW TSE1854B27

Resources
Current hourly aviation weather observations (METAR) and terminal forecasts (TAF) can be found at adds.aviationweather.gov/metars/

A study guide for reading and understanding aviation hourly weather observations and terminal forecasts



The FAA publication Weather Formats: METAR/TAF (FAA/ARW-200/99/001) is available from the FSDO, Wings Programs or from the FAA at 202 366 1107.  It is also available for download as a PDF file at
http://www.asy.faa.gov/safety_products/metar_taf.pdf


TAF

Jim Sweeney, NAPPF President and USUA Board Member
Last time Jim was with us, he talked about METAR which is an hourly report of current weather conditions. This time we talk about the TAF, which is a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast. Jim helps us to decode this helpful weather tool. As before, Jim has provided some examples to work on. Learn information that will help you transition to Sport Pilot. (5/25/03)



TAF
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

TAF
KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
FM1000 22010KT 5SM -SHRA OVC020 BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC

Decode
The Where, When, and Wind trick works with TAF

TAF
KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
Where
KPIT is the ICAO station identifier

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
When
091730Z This is the forecast for the 9th day of the month with an issuance time of 1730Z or
UTC. This is a 2 digit date and 4 digit time.

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
091818 is the valid period with the first two digits containing the day of the month (09).
09
1818 the second two digits specify the hour beginning the forecast period (1800Z).
0918
18 the last two digits are the hour ending the forecast period (1800Z on the next day the
10th).

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
Wind
22020KT is reported as the 3 digit true direction to the nearest 10 degrees.
            (Note: ATC towers, ATIS and airport advisory service report wind as magnetic.)
220
20KT next is the 2 or 3 digit speed and units (KT).
00000KT for calm winds

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020
Visibility
3SM   
Three statute miles

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020

SIGNIFICANT PRESENT WEATHER
-SHRA: Showers/Light Rain
           
Format is a two character descriptor
                        (TS, SH, BL)
            sometimes followed by a two character weather phenomenon
                        (BR, DZ, HZ, RA, SN, FG)
            Intensity or proximity of weather phenomenon:
                        "-" Light, "+" Heavy, "no sign" Moderate
                       
"VC" In the vicinity

KPIT 091730Z 091818 22020KT 3SM -SHRA BKN020

CLOUDS
BKN020: Specifies cloud amount, height, and type.
            Broken clouds are present at 2000 feet
Cloud height is reported in hundreds of feet
The clouds are categorized based on eighths of the sky:
            SKC Sky Clear
            FEW >1/8 2/8
            SCT    3/8 4/8
            BKN    5/8 7/8
            OVC    8/8

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
When
FM2030 From 2030Z or UTC time   Indicates hours and minutes

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
Wind
300
15G25KT is reported as the 3 digit true direction to the nearest 10 degrees.
            (Note: ATC towers, ATIS and airport advisory service report wind as magnetic.)
300
15G25KT next is the 2 or 3 digit speed.
30015
G25KT a "G" comes next if the wind is gusting.
30015G
25KT followed by the 2 or 3 digit maximum speed and units (KT).

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
Visibility
3SM 3 Statute Miles

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
Weather
SHRA
: Showers/Moderate Rain
           
Format is a two character descriptor
                        (TS, SH, BL)
            sometimes followed by a two character weather phenomenon
                        (BR, DZ, HZ, RA, SN, FG)
            Intensity or proximity of weather phenomenon:
                        "-" Light, "+" Heavy, "no sign" Moderate
                       
"VC" In the vicinity


FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
Clouds
OVC015
: Specifies cloud amount, height, and type.
            Overcast clouds are present at 1500 feet
Cloud height is reported in hundreds of feet
The clouds are categorized based on eighths of the sky:
            SKC Sky Clear
            FEW >1/8 2/8
            SCT    3/8 4/8
            BKN    5/8 7/8
            OVC    8/8

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
When
TEMPO 2022
Temporary changes expected between 2000Z and 2200Z.

FM2030 30015G25KT 3SM SHRA OVC015 TEMPO 2022 1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB
Visibility, Weather, Clouds
1/2SM TSRA OVC008CB

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
When
FM0100

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR

Wind
   27008KT

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR

Visibility
5SM

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
Weather
-SHRA

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
When

PROB40 0407   There is a 40 percent probability of this condition occurring between 0400Z
and 0700Z.


FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
Wind    00000KT

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
Visibility          
1SM

FM0100 27008KT 5SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040 PROB40 0407 00000KT 1SM -RA BR
Weather          
-RA BR

FM1000 22010KT 5SM -SHRA OVC020 BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC
When               FM1000
Wind                22010KT
Visibility          5SM
Weather          -SHRA
Clouds            OVC020
When               BECMG 1315   
Conditions Becoming as described between 1300Z and 1500Z
Wind                20010KT
Visibility          P6SM
Weather           NSW
Clouds             SKC


TAF for Dupage, IL 5/25/04
KDPA 251124Z 251212 02008KT P6SM SCT008 BKN020 OVC090
     TEMPO 1215 BKN007 OVC025
     FM1500 36010KT P6SM BKN020 OVC120
     FM2100 34008KT P6SM SCT025 OVC120
     FM0700 31006KT P6SM BKN020 OVC200


METAR TAF - Abbreviations
AO1 Automated Observation without precipitation discriminator (rain/snow)
AO2 Automated Observation with precipitation discriminator (rain/snow)
AMD Amended Forecast (TAF)

BECMG Becoming (expected between 2 digit beginning hour and 2 digit ending hour)
BKN Broken 5-7 octas (eighths) cloud coverage

CLR Clear at or below 12,000 feet (ASOS/AWOS report)
COR Correction to the observation

FEW 1 or 2 octas (eighths) cloud coverage
FM From (4 digit beginning time in hours and minutes)

LDG Landing M In temperature field means "minus" or below zero

M In RVR listing indicates visibility less than lowest reportable sensor value (e.g. M0600)

NO Not available (e.g. SLPNO, RVRNO)
NSW No Significant Weather. Note: NSW only indicates obstruction to visibility or precipitation previously noted has ended. Low ceilings, wind shear, and other weather conditions may still exist.

OVC Overcast 8 octas (eighths) cloud coverage

P In RVR indicates visibility greater than highest reportable sensor value (e.g. P6000FT)
P6SM P6SM Visibility greater than 6 SM (TAF only
PK
WND Peak wind
PROB40 Probability 40 percent

R Runway (used in RVR measurement)
RMK Remark
RY/RWY Runway

SCT Scattered 3-4 octas (eighths) cloud coverage
SKC Sky Clear
SLP Sea Level Pressure (e.g., 1001.3 reported as 013)
SM Statue Mile(s)
SPECI Special Report

TEMPO Temporary changes expected (between 2 digit beginning hour and 2
digit ending hour)
TKOF Takeoff, T01760158, 10142, 20012 and 401120084. In Remarks examples of temperature information

V Varies (wind direction and RVR)
VC Vicinity
VRB Variable wind direction when speed is less than or equal to 6 knots
VV Vertical Visibility (Indefinite Ceiling)

WC Wind shear (In TAFs, low level and not associated with convective activity)

Descriptors
    
BC Patches
    
BL Blowing
    
DR Low Drifting
 
    FZ Supercooled/Freezing
    
MI Shallow
   
PR Partial
    SH Showers
   
TS Thundersto
Weather Phenomena
   
BR Mist
   
DS Dust Storm
    DU Widespread Dust
    DZ Drizzle
   
FC Funnel Cloud
   
+FC Tornado/Water Spout
    FG Smog
   
FU Smoke
   
GR Hail
   
GS Small Hail/Snow Pellets
   
HZ Haze
   
IC Ice Crystals
   
PE Ice Pellets
   
PO Dust/Sand Whirls
    PY Spray
   
RA Rain
   
SA Sand
    SG Snow Grains
    SN Snow
   
SQ Squall
   
SS Sandstorm
   
UP Unknown Precipitation (Automated Observations)
   
VA Volcanic Ash
Cloud Types
   
CB Cumulonimbus
    TCU Towering Cumulus
Intensity Values
   
(-) Light
   
No Sign Moderate
   
(+) Heavy

Converting Celsius into Fahrenheit is easy
.
Double the Celsius temperature. Then subtract 10% of the doubled temperature. Finally add 32. You now have the equivalent Fahrenheit temperature.
Here's an example:
To determine the Fahrenheit equivalent of 15c
15C x 2 = 30C
30C x 10% = 3C
30C - YC = 27C
27C + 32 = 59F


FA Synopsis
Area Forecasts
[Under Construction]
   
Work in Process


Resources
Current hourly aviation weather observations (METAR) and terminal forecasts (TAF) can be found at adds.aviationweather.gov/metars/

 

Send mail to info@nappf.com with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright 2001 North American Powered Parachute Federation
Last modified: 07/23/09